Understanding the history and theology of Fascism as a system of interstate governance…

Introduction

For many years the phrase ideology has remained a confusing topic for not only social analysts but an assortment of philosophers from the academic community as an arena. Nevertheless, in today’s global community this term has become a incredibly diverse and fluid philosophy that transcends disciplines from fields of psychology and sociology. On the other hand, although the terminology of an ideology in accordance to the beliefs of de Tracy is centred more or less around, ‘ the science of ideas’ and the collection of normative beliefs and values;nevertheless, no ideology has inflicted a greater dimensions of pain and suffering than Fascism. Consequently, Fascist movements have taken place in not only constituencies from around the world but have inflicted a legacy facilitated by the dimensions of suffering and anguish. This veracity can however be noted through an observation of Nazism and Italian fascism as circulatory interstate governmental policies. Nonetheless, it is as a result of this veracity that in this essay I will firstly be discussing what is fascism? I will then secondly discuss what this terminology as an ideology entails. I will then conclude this discussion with my own opinion regarding the long term implications of this movement for many regions around the world today.

2. What Is Fascism?

Fascism refers to a form of radical totalitarian rule often characterized by dictatorial rule and the forcible suppression of its populace social, economic and physical facilitation's within the confides of a nation state(Young, 2014) .The origin of this phrase was however first used in 1919 to describe a movement started under the leadership of Benito Mussolini,who described Fascism as a ideology of avid moral standing. Nevertheless, the principals of Fascism rotate around the facilitation of a doctrine based on totalitarian dogma or system of governance that involves itself with not only political organizations within a state but the political tendency of its social environment(Griffin, 2012).In addition, Fascism as a process involves a hostile approach to all peaceful systems of governance. This veracity can be noted as Fascists often view the state as a entirely mental construct. Consequently, fascists often claim the nation is never really made neither can the state attain an absolute physical form due to the fact the nation-state is viewed as a mental political manifestation(Young, 2014). Robert Paxton a professor at the Columbia University of New York also known as the elaborate of Fascism does however describe this practice as a distinctive administration which gained wide held acceptance and popularity in the 20th century. In accordance to he’s beliefs, this philosophy involves the invocation of enthusiasm among a populace through the promotion of refined propaganda techniques based on an anti-liberal, anti-socialist and expansionist national agenda. Nevertheless, Fascism in today’s global epoch is commonly associated with many popular German Nazi and Italian regimes after World War I in Europe. On the other hand, Fascist ideology does however aim to create a mixed economy through the creation of a national and independent economy that is not only sovereign but self sufficient (Science, 2018). As such Fascists often view, Imperialism, political violence and war as appropriate means which can be used to achieve national rebirth. This veracity can be noted as fascist often claim there is nothing wrong with displacing weaker nations through territorial expansion (What is Fascism, 2018).

3.1Extreme Nationalism in Fascism/Ultra-nationalism

The first pre dominant characteristic of Fascism as an ideology is however known as Extreme nationalism or Ultra nationalism. Whilst most cosmopolitan conservative ideologies are based on the principals of international cooperation and an elite culture, extreme nationalism with regard to the ideals of Fascism does nevertheless promote the interest of one state or populace directly over that of another. Although in today’s global epoch being called a Fascist is viewed as an insult, nevertheless Fascism as an ideology places emphasis on the fact that national identity is an essential factor of individual identity and should not be motivated by foreign influences especially if they do not have shared values regarding governance. Nevertheless extreme nationalist or ultra-nationalists heavily rely on propaganda as a means to spread information to achieve a particular goal (Webster, 2018).

Moreover, advocates of this process use Propaganda as a means to manipulate the human emotions of fear and insecurity with regard to a populace. Nevertheless, this is often carried out in an attempt to influence citizens to support a particular association or opinionated movement. Conversely, nationalist movements are often turned ultra-nationalist by social or economic cries from a populace, the emergence of a charismatic authoritarian leader or beliefs of long standing national superiority (Umland, 2008). An example of this veracity can however be noted through an observation of Germany’s political milieu after World War I. After World War I Germany existed in a realm of economic turmoil riddled by the dimensions of poverty due to the fact that post war compensation forced the administration of this constituency to pay billions of dollars back to the countries it engaged with violently during the War (Skya, n.d.). Consequently, the emergence of Adolph Hitler and his promise of a stronger Germany and the racial superiority of the Arian race ultimately gained such a large following that he and his National party were able to ascend to the role of leadership (Shurts, 2014).

4. Totalitarian system of government and Fascism

Totalitarianism or Totalitarian rule refers to the second feature of Fascism as an ideology that aims to describe a system of government that in concept deprives citizens of all individual freedom, seeks complete control over all aspects of social and economic facilitations within a state in addition to the collective authority over all aspects of individual life (n.a, 2018).Nevertheless, Totalitarian regimes are usually anti-democratic, radical political systems in which oppression is institutionalized as a tool of power (Cawelti, 1969). Nonetheless, this system of government is often a common factor in many Fascists movements as can be noted with Adolph Hitler’s rule over the Nazi’s in Germany and rule of Joseph Stalin in Russia. Nevertheless, the notion of totalitarianism was first introduced in 1923 by Italian Fascist Giovanni Amendola who fundamentally described Italian Fascism as a system completely different from conventional dictatorships (Bernholz, 1997). This was due to the fact that Giovanni inherently believed Totalitarianism represented a system of governance upon which all aspects of society are subsumed by the state which inevitably facilitates the creation of a society based on moral principles (Dubel, 2017). Moreover, Giovanni believed Totalitarianism as an ideology facilitated the creation of a state that if citizens did not have power they’d naturally have influence as a tool to both express any grievances and serve as instruments of change (O’brien, 1970).

4.1 Elitism in Fascism

Elitism or the elite theory does however refer to the third feature of Fascism as a regulated ideology. In theory elitism refers to the theoretical perspective that most communities would be better off if all economic, social and environmental decisions were made by a small exclusive group of individuals within a state. This term was however nevertheless originally used to describe a certain group of intellectuals who had a sense of moral superiority in order to cater to the needs of those whom they govern (Knežević, 2010). Nonetheless this theory as an ideology was first formulated at the end of the nineteenth century and early decades of the 20th century by Vilforredo Parreto and Gaetono Mosca (Elder, 1977). This theory is however, characteristically defined by a group of powerful elites in large scale societies who offer a sense of radical critique and wisdom with regard to improving living conditions for a populace (Webster, 2018).

Moreover, elitism as an ideology in Fascism usually entails the emergence of bureaucratic mass parties and the concentration of corporate power. Nevertheless, in its re-established form the hypothesis of elitism contains many factual implications of a predictive capacity with regard to society as a force (Tyler, 2006). This occurrence does on the other hand, not only involve the prescription of new values with regard to societal normalities, but rather the characterization of specific circumstances in a political milieu (Field & Higley, n.d.). Comparatively, elite members of a society always have more power, wealth, status and privilege in comparison to other members of the general community(“Elite theory | political science”, 2018) .Consequently, due to dimensions imposed by this actuality elitism as a interstate component is often incompatible with the full measure of freedom and equality in a society. This veracity can be noted through the Nazi’s goal to establish the Arian race throughout Eastern Europe. Elitism is however an incredibly crucial factor when analysing fascism as an ideology.

4.2Fascism the One-party state

The one party state, also known as the single party system is a phrase used to describe another aspect of Fascism as an interstate ideology. States that follow this arrangement are however often autocratic and non-democratic political regimes where only one specific political party has control over all political decisions. Moreover, one-party states are often inherently characterized by one single faction representing the whole of societies ecological and economic interests as a collective body with the assumption that there are no particular social interests only a general unified extensive political will, representing a dominant and superior working class and social class(Haynes, 1992). On the other hand, many academics and analysers of the one party framework argue, in some cases the single party system if well structured and committed to the social contract of its populace serves a viable tool to not only serve as a tool capable of facilitating nation building in vulnerable nations but a means to uphold valuable interstate values and cultures (Moakley, 1992). Nevertheless, although in today’s global epoch many of the states that adhere to this system of governance are communist, most Fascist regimes do nevertheless have these traits as can be noted with the Nazi movement in Germany and the rise of Fascism as an ideology in Italy.

4.3Militarism in Fascism

Militarism does however refer to the fourth aspect of fascism as an ideology. Nevertheless, militarism does not, merely institute the presence of war or military institutions within a state but rather the promotion of values rooted in the patriarchal construction of gender roles which socialize men and boys to believe that violence is masculine(Tansill, 1935). Moreover, militarism culture allows states and non-state actors to act with impunity with regard to a wide range of social agenda have in order to maintain power and control over a populace(Desch, 2006). Comparatively, a German historian who served in World War I defines militarism as the dominion of the military man over the civilian, the undue preponderance of military demands and the emphasis on military considerations as the priority with regard to economic revenue (n.a, 2018). Moreover, although militarism is a central aspect of most modern societies this term inherently represents the measure of fragmentation in a nation-state relating to military striking capacity. This theology does nevertheless; rotate around levels of military expenditure, the militarisation of domestic social relations, the use of force in intercontinental relations as well as the nuclear arms race (Smith,1983).Nonetheless, when applied as a interstate ideology militarism has a long history of being used as an administrative tool to inhibit the working class struggle against tyrannical regimes as well as increasing the rate of exploitation during interstate variance(Smith,1983).What’s more, Militarism, nationalism and imperialism were all intrinsically connected philosophies in the 19th and early 20th centuries as military power was considered not only a measure of national but imperial strength among members of the global community. This veracity can however be noted as a powerful states often needed powerful military to not only protect its interests but support its policies.

5. Conclusion

Hence fourth in conclusion, although for many years the phrase ideology has remained a confusing topic for not only social analysts but an assortment of philosophers from the academic community as an arena. In today’s global community this term has become incredibly diverse and fluid philosophy that transcends disciplines from fields of psychology and sociology. On the other hand, although the terminology of an ideology in accordance to the beliefs of de Tracy is centred more or less around, ‘ the science of ideas’ and the collection of normative beliefs and values. Nevertheless, no ideology has inflicted greater dimensions of pain and suffering than Fascism. Consequently, Fascist movements have taken place in not only constituencies from around the world but have inflicted a legacy facilitated by the dimensions of suffering and anguish. This veracity can however be noted through an observation of Nazism and Italian fascism as circulatory interstate governmental policies. Nevertheless, regardless of the anguish caused by this system as an ideology in today’s 21st century Fascism has become an ideology not only looked down upon but discredited by a vast amount of constituencies as a system of interstate governance.

6. Reference List

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Tyler, C. (2006). Review article: Elitism and Anti-elitism in Nineteenth Century Democratic Thought. History Of European Ideas, 32(3), 345–355. doi: 10.1016/j.histeuroideas.2006.04.002

Umland, A. (2008). Conceptual and Contextual Problems in the Interpretation of Contemporary Russian Ultranationalism. Russian Politics & Law, 46(4), 6–30. doi: 10.2753/rup1061–1940460401

Webster, M. (2018). Definition of ELITISM. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/elitism

Young, L. (2014). Fascism for the British Audience. Fascism, 3(2), 93–116. doi: 10.1163/22116257–00302002

International Relations and Political Science Graduate from the Monash University of Australia/Writer/Journalist

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